تأثیر پویایی محیطی و دانش کارآفرینانه بر تشخیص فرصت‌های آن با نقش میانجی خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی ( با رویکردهای کمی)

نویسنده

گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه به عنوان نقاط عطف در اقیانوس‌های آبی کسب‌وکار شناخته می‌شود که به دلیل عدم دانش کارآفرینانه و ناتوانی خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه به‌سرعت تبدیل به اقیانوس قرمز می‌گردند. بدین جهت، این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر دانش کارآفرینانه و پویایی محیطی بر تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه با نقش میانجی خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه در مرکز مشاوره و اطلاع‌رسانی کارآفرین در شهر کرمان طی 15 ماه (1393-1395) انجام شد.
طراحی/ روش‌شناسی/رویکرد: روش پژوهش بر حسب هدف کاربردی، از نظر روش گردآوری داده­ها توصیفی ـ همبستگی و همین­طور از نظر نوع داده کمی بود. جامعۀ آماری شامل420 نفر از همه مراجعه‌کنندگان (دارای کسب‌وکار) به مرکز مشاوره و اطلاع­رسانی کارآفرین در شهر کرمان بود که با استفاده از جدول مورگان و روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده 201 نفر به‌عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب شد که همگی صاحبان و یا مدیرعاملان کسب‌وکارهای کوچک بودند. به­منظور گردآوری داده­ها از پرسش‌نامه‌های استاندارد بهره گرفته شد. پس از جمع­آوری پرسش‌نامه­ها، توصیف داده­ها از طریق میانگین، انحراف معیار، درصد، فراوانی و جدول از طریق نرم‌افزار SPSS و استنباط آماری داده­ها از طریق مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری و به کمک نرم‌افزار LISREL انجام پذیرفت. ویژگی­های فنی پرسش‌نامه شامل پایایی، روایی همگرا و روایی واگرا بررسی گردید.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌های پژوهش در دو دسته آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ضرایب مسیر و ضرایب معناداری نرم‌افزار برای بررسی فرضیه‌های پژوهش مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند.
محدودیت‌ها و پیامدها: نتایج نشان داد درجه تناسب مدل ارائه‌شده با توجه به مؤلفه­های پژوهش مناسب بود؛ همچنین دانش کارآفرینانه و پویایی محیطی بر تشخیص فرصت­های کارآفرینانه با نقش میانجی خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه تأثیر داشت.
پیامدهای عملی: نتایج عملیاتی مبین این است که فرصت‌های محیطی از پویایی آشفتگی و دانش  محیطی استخراج می‌گردد، بنابراین کارآفرینان بایستی با ارتقای دانش کارآفرینانه و قرارگرفتن در محیط‌های پویا و متنوع، قدرت تشخیص فرصت‌های محیطی خود را افزایش داده و زمینه‌ساز ایجاد خلاقیت و خودکارآمدی شوند.
ابتکار یا ارزش مقاله: با توجه به خلأ پژوهشی که در رابطه با مفهوم ویژگی‌های محیطی و اطلاعات درک شده از مفاهیم کارآفرینانه با کشف و شناسایی فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه وجود دارد، سعی به ارائه مدلی کارآمد در خصوص ارتباط و نحوه تأثیر این متغیرها بر یکدیگر شده است.
نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Environmental Dynamics and Entrepreneurial Knowledge on Recognition of Opportunities with the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyedeh Masoumeh Ghamkhari
Department of Business Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Purpose: Entrepreneurial opportunities are known as turning points in the blue oceans of business that due to lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and inability of entrepreneurial self-efficacy quickly turn into the Red Ocean. With the mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the Entrepreneur Counseling and Information Center in Kerman during 15 months (2016-2017).
Design / Methodology / Approach: The research method was descriptive-correlation in terms of applied purpose in terms of data collection method and quantitative in terms of data type. The statistical population included 420 people who referred to the Entrepreneur Counseling and Information Center in Kerman. Using Morgan table and simple random sampling method, 201 people were selected as the sample size, all of whom are owners or CEOs. They were small businesses. Standard questionnaires were used to collect data. After collecting the questionnaires, data were described through means, standard deviation, percentage, frequency and table using SPSS software and statistical inference of data was done through structural equation modeling using LISREL software. The technical characteristics of the questionnaire including reliability, convergent validity and divergent validity were evaluated.
Research findings: The research findings were examined in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Path coefficients and software significance coefficients were used to test the research hypotheses.
Limitations & Consequences: The results showed that the degree of fit of the proposed model was appropriate according to the components of the research; Also, entrepreneurial knowledge and environmental dynamics had an effect on identifying entrepreneurial opportunities with the mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy.
Practical implications: Operational results indicate that environmental opportunities are extracted from the dynamics of turmoil and environmental knowledge, so entrepreneurs should increase their ability to recognize environmental opportunities by promoting entrepreneurial knowledge and being in dynamic and diverse environments, creating the conditions for creativity and self-efficacy. To be.
Innovation or value of the article: Due to the research vacuum that exists in relation to the concept of environmental characteristics and perceived information of entrepreneurial concepts by discovering and identifying entrepreneurial opportunities, an effective model has been tried to communicate the relationship between these variables.




Paper Type: Research Paper

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurial Knowledge
  • Environmental Dynamics
  • Identifying Entrepreneurial Opportunities
  • Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy
  1. Ahlin, B., Drnovšek, M., & Hisrich, R. D. (2014), “Entrepreneurs’ creativity and firm innovation: the moderating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy”. Small Business Economics, 43(1), 101-117.
  2. Aldrich, H. (1979), “Organizations and Environments”. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  3. Atarnia, Ahmad, (2009), "Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship". Qom: Qom Scientific-Applied Center of Justice. (In Persian).
  4. Barani, SH., Zarafshani, K., Delangizan, S., & Hossiene Largani, M. (2010), “The effect of entrepreneurship ttraining on entrepreneurial behavior among Kermanshah University students: Structural equation model”. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 57, 85-105 (in Persian).
  5. BarNir, A., Watson, W. E., & Hutchins, H. M. (2011), “Mediation and moderated mediation in the relationship among role models, self‐efficacy, entrepreneurial career intention, and gender”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(2), 270-297.
  6. Bavarsad, Belqis and Vida Hassanpour, (2014), "Study of the impact of economic sanctions on the business environment, entrepreneurship, small and medium enterprises", International Conference on Economics in the context of sanctions, Babolsar. (In Persian)
  7. Bryant, P., (2007), “Self-regulation and decision heuristics in entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation and exploitation”. Management Decision 45, 732–748.
  8. Bygrave, W.D. (1994), “the Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship”, John Wiley, New York, NY.
  9. Chen, C. and Green, G. (1998), “Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?” Journal of Business Venturing, 13 (3), 137- 157.
  10. Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., & Salter, A. (2011), “The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship”. Research Policy, 40(8), 1084-1093.
  11. Covin, J.G. and Slevin, D.P. (1991), “A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7-25.
  12. Davidsson, P. (2015), “Entrepreneurial opportunities and the entrepreneurship nexus: A re-conceptualization”. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(5), 674-695.‏
  13. Dimov, D. (2010), “Nascent entrepreneurs and venture emergence: Opportunity confidence, human capital, and early planning”. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1123-1153.
  14. Dutta, D. K., Gwebu, K. L., & Wang, J. (2013), “Personal innovativeness in technology, related knowledge and experience, and entrepreneurial intentions in emerging technology industries: a process of causation or effectuation?” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1-27.
  15. Farmer, S. M., Yao, X., & Kung‐Mcintyre, K. (2011), “The behavioral impact of entrepreneur identity aspiration and prior entrepreneurial experience”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(2), 245-273.
  16. George, N. M., Parida, V., Lahti, T., & Wincent, J. (2016), “A systematic literature review of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: insights on influencing factors”. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 309-350.‏
  17. Gholipour, R., Aghajani, H., and Karimi, M. (2009), “Investigating Factors Influencing on Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition in the Field of Information Technology”, 1 (3):123-158. (In Persian).
  18. Gibbs, S.R., (2009), “Exploring the influence of task-specific self-efficacy on opportunity recognition perceptions and behaviors”. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research
  19. Hansen, D.J., Lumpkin, G.T., and Hills, G.E. (2011), “A multidimensional examination of a creativity-based opportunity recognition model”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 17(5):515-533.
  20. Hashemzehi, A., Bahrinejad, R., Lashgari, H., and Hashemzehi, M. (2013), “Foundations of opportunity recognition: A cognitive perspective”. Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper, 38(2): 196-204.
  21. Hayton, J., Chandler, G.N., and Detienne, D.R. (2011), “Entrepreneurial opportunity identification and new firm development processes: a comparison of family and non-family new ventures”. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 13(1): 12-31.
  22. Heavey, C, Simsek, Z, Roche, F. & Kelly, A. (2009), “Decision Comprehensiveness and Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Role of Managerial Uncertainty Preferences and Environmental Dynamism”, Journal of Management Studies, 46(8), 1289-1314.
  23. Hosseini Fahraji, Hossein; Nasiripour, Amirashkan; Raeisi, Pouran, (2013), "Environmental factors affecting the development of organizational entrepreneurship in Iranian public hospitals". Health Management, 3 (2 and 1). Pp. 45-56. (In Persian)
  24. Kasouf, C. (2003), “Opportunity assessments afram work integrating positive psychology and environmental”. Retrieved from uic/cba.iej/2003 papers /kasout.htm.
  25. Kasouf, C. J., Morrish, S. C., & Miles, M. P. (2015), “The moderating role of explanatory style between experience and entrepreneurial self-efficacy”. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(1), 1-17.‏
  26. Kearney, K, Hisrich, R. & Roche, F. (2008), “A conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship”, International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 4, 295-313.
  27. Kontinen, T., and Ojala, A. (2011), “International opportunity recognition among small and medium-sized family firms”. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(3): 490-514.
  28. Lee, J. H., & Venkataraman, S. (2011), “Aspirations, market offerings, and the pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities”. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1), 107-123.
  29. Liñán, F. (2009), “Skill and value perceptions: how do they affect entrepreneurial intention?” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(3), 257–272.
  30. Luthans, F., Stajkovic, A., & Ibrayera, E. (2000), “Enviormental and psychological callenges fading entrepreneuriral develop ment in transitional economic”. Journal of World Business, 35(1), 95-110.
  31. Naghizadeh, Mohammad; Tabatabaeian, Seyed Habibullah; Manteghi, Manouchehr; Payam, Hanafizadeh; Naghizadeh, Reza, (2013), "The effect of market orientation and perceptions of firm managers on the dynamics of the environment on the promotion of technological capability in firms in the Iranian avionics sector." Technology Development Management, No. 1, pp. 67-74. (In Persian)
  32. Neck, C.P., Manz, C.C., (1996), “Though self-leadership: the impact of mental strategies training on employee cognition, behavior, and affect”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 17, 445–467.
  33. Ozgen, E., & Baron, R. A. (2007), “Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums”. Journal of business venturing, 22(2), 174-192.
  34. Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015), “Burst bubbles or build steam? Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions”. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 970-985.‏
  35. Rae, D. (2007), “Entrepreneurship: from opportunity to action. Human Systems Management, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 229-40.
  36. Saremi, M., and Alizadeh Sani, M. (2009), “Investigating Factors Influencing the Process of Identifying Entrepreneurial Opportunities Among Top Entrepreneurs Selected”. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 1(3):103-122. (In Persian).
  37. Schenkel, M (2005), “New Interprise Opportunity Recognition”, Unpublished Dissertation Doctoral, University of Cincinnati.
  38. Schenkel, M. T., D'souza, R. R., & Braun, F. C. (2014), “Entrepreneurial self-efficacy, intent and intensity: Does experiential training enhance or inhibit predisposition?” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 19(01), 1450005.‏
  39. Shamaizadeh, M. (2006), “Effects of career counseling based on the social cognitive approach on increasing entrepreneurship self-efficacy and general self-efficacy among Isfahan University students. (Unprinted master's dissertation)”. Isfahan University (in Persian).
  40. Shane, S. (2000), “Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities”. Organization science, 11(4), 448-469.
  41. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000), “The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research”. Academy of management review, 25(1), pp: 217-226.
  42. Shepherd, D. A., Covin, G, F., Kuratko F. D. (2008), "Project Failure from Corporate Entrepreneurship: Managing the Grief Process", Journal of Business Venturing, 24(6), 588-600.
  43. Shoghi, Behzad, (2013), "Factors affecting organizational entrepreneurship in Kaveh Industrial City". Master Thesis, Educational Management, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch. (In Persian)
  44. Sommer, L., & Haug, M. (2011), “Intention as a cognitive antecedent to international entrepreneurship—understanding the moderating roles of knowledge and experience”. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(1), 111-142.
  45. Sullivan, R., & Mahalik, R. (2000), “Increasing career self-efficacy for woman evaluating a group intervention”. Journal of Counseling Development, 54-60.
  46. Tang, J. (2010), “How entrepreneurs discover opportunities in China: An institutional view”. Pac. J. Manag., 27:461–479
  47. Tang, J., Kacmar, K.M. and Busenitz, L. (2012), “Entrepreneurial alertness in the pursuit of new opportunities”. Journal of Business Venturing, 27: 77–94.
  48. Tsai, K. H., Chang, H. C., & Peng, C. Y. (2016), “Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: a moderated mediation model”. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 445-463.‏
  49. Vesper, K.H., (1993), “Entrepreneurship Education”. Entrepreneurial Studies Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.
  50. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007), “Gender, entrepreneurial Self‐Efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship Education1”. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 31(3), 387-406.