رفتارهای انحرافی در سازمان: تبیین نقش ادراک حمایت سازمانی و بی‌عدالتی، ناکامی و شخصیت

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی ( با رویکردهای کمی)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج)

چکیده

     این پژوهش با هدف طراحی مدلی - شامل متغیرهای ویژگی­های شخصیتی (سازگاری و وظیفه‌شناسی)، ادراک بی­عدالتی، ادراک حمایت سازمانی و ناکامی- برای تبیین رفتارهای انحرافی در سازمان­های دولتی «بهشهر» انجام شد. بدین منظور ابتدا پرسشنامه­های پژوهش تهیه و پس از اطمینان از پایایی و روایی محتوای آن‌ها، در میان نمونه 269 نفری از کارکنان قلمرو مکانی پژوهش توزیع شد. برای بررسی مقدماتی روایی سازه سنجه از فن تجزیة مؤلفه­های اصلی و به‌منظور اجتناب از تهدید واریانس روش مشترک، آزمون یک عاملی هارمن اجرا شد. برای بررسی فرضیه­ها، نخست با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تأییدی، مدل­های اندازه­گیری پژوهش در نرم‌افزار Amos Graphics برآورد و آزمون شدند؛ سپس از طریق روش رگرسیون چندگانه، داده­ها به مدل‌های معادلة ساختاری برازش شدند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد، ادراک حمایت سازمانی بر ادراک بی­عدالتی اثر منفی، ادراک بی­عدالتی بر ناکامی و ناکامی بر رفتارهای انحرافی در سازمان اثر مثبت معنادار دارند؛ همچنین مشخص شد که ویژگی­های شخصیتی سازگاری و وظیفه­شناسی در رفتارهای مزبور اثر منفی معناداری دارند. نتایج تأثیر ویژگی­های شخصیتی یادشده بر ادراک حمایت سازمانی و ادراک بی­عدالتی را تأیید نکرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. . آغاز، عسل؛ و هاشمی، امین (1391). بررسی تجربی مدل بسط یافتة هویت سازمانی با توجه به ویژگی‌های شخصیتی کارکنان. فصلنامه چشم‌انداز مدیریت دولتی، 12، 87-106.
  2. رضاییان، علی؛ و عاشوری، جواد (1392). تأثیر سنخ شخصیتی و نوع محیط بر تصمیم‌گیری متقابل اعضاء تیم‌های کاری. فصلنامه چشم‌انداز مدیریت دولتی، 15، 15-37.
  3. Ambrose, M. L., Seabright, M. A. & Schminke, M. (2002). Sabotage in the workplace: The Role of Organizational Injustice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 947–965.
  4. Appelbaum, S. H., Deguire, K. J. & Lay, M. (2005). The relationship of ethical climate to deviant workplace behaviour, Corporate Governance, 5, 43-56.
  5. Appelbaum, S.H., Iaconi, G. D. and Matousek, A. (2007). Positive and negative deviant workplace behaviors: Causes, Impacts, and Solutions. Corporate Governance, 7, 586-598.
  6. Aquino, K., Galperin, B. L. & Bennett, R. (2004). Social status and aggressiveness as moderators of the relationship between interactional justice and workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34, 1001-29.
  7. Aquino, K., Lewis, M. U. & Bradfield, M. (1999), Justice constructs, negative affectivity, and employee deviance: A proposed Model and Empirical Test, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(7), 1073-1091.
  8. Babin, B. J & Boles, S. (1998), Employee behavior in a service environment: a model and test of potential differences between men and women. Journal of Marketing, 62, 77-91.
  9. Barrick, M., Stewart, G., Neubert, M. & Mount, M. (1998). Relating member ability and person‌ality to work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 377-391.
  10. Barclay, L. J., Skarlicki, D. P. & Pugh, S. D. (2005). Exploring the role of emotions in injustice perceptions and retaliation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (4), 629–643.
  11. Baron, R. A., Neuman, J. H. & Geddes, D. (1999). Social and personal determinants of workplace aggression: Evidence for The Impact of Perceived Injustice and The Type A Behavior Pattern. Aggressive Behavior, 25 (4), 281-296.
  12. Barrick, M. R. & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26.
  13. Bennett, R. J. & Robinson, S. L. (2003). The past, present, and future of workplace deviance research. In: J. Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior: The state of the science, Second Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 247-281.
  14. Bennett, R. J. & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349–360.
  15. Berry, C. M., Ones, D. S., & Sackett, P. R. (2007). Interpersonal deviance, organizational deviance, and their common correlates: A review and metaanalysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 410–424.
  16. Bies, R. J. & Moag, C. L. (1986). Interpersonal justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 1, 43–55.
  17. Bies, R. J. & Tripp, T. M. (1996). Beyond distrust: Getting Even and The Need for Revenge. In Kramer R. M, Tyler T. (Eds.), Trust in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 246-260.
  18. Blau, P.M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
  19. Chen, P. Y. & Spector, P. E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65, 177-184.
  20. Coccia, C. (1998). Avoiding a Toxic Organization. Nursing Management, 29, 32-34.
  21. Cohen-Charash, Y. & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A Meta-Analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 278-321.
  22. Colbert, A. E., Mount, M. K., Harter, J. K., Witt, L. A. & Barrick, M. R. (2004). Interactive effects of personality and perceptions of the work situation on workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 599-609.
  23. Colquitt, J. A.,Conlon, D. E.,Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. & Yee Ng, K. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 years of Organizational Justice Research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3), 425-445.
  24. Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R. & Dembroski, T. M. (1998). Agreeableness versus antagonism: Explication of a potential risk factor for CHD. In: A. Siegman, and T. M. Dembroski (Eds), In: Search of coronary-prone behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 41-63.
  25. Cullen, M. J. & Sackett, P. R. (2003). Personality and counterproductive workplace behavior. In: M. R. Barrick and A. M. Ryan. Personality and work, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 150–182.
  26. Cropanzano, R. (1995). Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing The Social Climate of The Workplace. ABC-CLIO, Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
  27. Dar, Y. & Resh, N. (2001). Exploring the multifaceted structure of sense of deprivation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 1, 63-81.
  28. Day, D.V. & Bedeian, A. G. (1995). Personality similarity and work-related outcomes among African American nursing personnel: A Test of The Supplementary Model of Person‌environment Congruence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 55-70.
  29. DeMore, S. W., Fisher, J. D. & Baron, R. M. (1988). The equity-control model as a predictor of vandalism among college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 80–91.
  30. De Raad, B. & Doddema-Winsemius, M. (1999). Instincts and personality. Personality and In‌dividual Differences, 27, 293-305.
  31. Digman, J. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417–440.
  32. Douglas, S. C. & Martinko, M. J. (2001). Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (4), 547-559.
  33. Dupre, K. E., Barling, J., Turner, N. & Stride, C. B. (2010). Comparing perceived injustices from supervisors and romantic partners as redictors of aggression. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15 (4), 359–370.
  34. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507.
  35. Everton, W. J., Jolton, J. A., & Masrangelo, P. M. (2007). Benice and fair or else: understanding reasons for employees’deviant behavior. Journal of Management Development, 26, 117-131.
  36. Galperin, B. L., & Burke, R. J. (2006). Uncovering the relationship between workaholism and workplace destructive and constructive deviance: An exploratory study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(2), 331-347.
  37. Geddes, D. (1994). The relationship between negative feedback and increased organizational aggression. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX.
  38. Giacolone, R. A. & Greenberg, J. (1997). Antisocial behavior in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  39. Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of members of the Big-Five factor structure. Personality Assessment, 4, 26–42.
  40. Greenberg, J. (1993a). The social side of fairness: Interpersonal and Informational Classes of Organizational Justice. In: R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 79-103.
  41. Greenberg, J. (1993b). Stealing in the name of justice: Informational and Interpersonal Moderators of Theft Reactions to Underpayment Inequity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 54, 81–103.
  42. Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The Hidden Cost of Pay Cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75 (5), 561-568.
  43. Greenberg, J. & Alge, B. J. (1998). Aggressive reactions to workplace injustice. Griffin, A. and O’Leary-Kelly, J. M. Collins (Eds.), Dysfunctional behavior in organizations, Part A: Violent and Deviant Behavior. JAI Press, London, 83–117.
  44. Griffin, R.W., O’Leary-Kelly, A. & Collins, J. (1998). Dysfunctional work behaviors in organizations. In: En, C., Cooper, L. and Rousseau, D.M. (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 65-82.
  45. Gruys, M. L. & Sackett, P. R. (2003). Investigating the dimensionality of counterproductive work behavior. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11, 30-42.
  46. Harman, D. (1967). A single factor test of common method variance. Journal of Psychology, 35, 359–378.
  47. Hastings, S., E. and O’Neill, T. A. (2009). Predicting workplace deviance using broad versus narrow personality variables. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 289–293.
  48. Hattrup, K. & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Learning about individual differences by taking situations siriousely. In: K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 507-547.
  49. Henle, C. A. (2005). Predicting workplace deviance from the interaction between organizational justice and personality. Journal of Managerial Issues, 17 (2), 247-263.
  50. Hough, L. M. (1992). The “Big Five” personality variables Construct confusion: Description Versus Prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139–155
  51. Hough, L. M., Eaton, N. K., Dunnette, M. D., Kamp, J. P. & McCloy, R. A. (1990). Criterion-related validities of personality constructs and the effect of response distortion on those validities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 581–595.
  52. House, R. J., Shane, S. A., & Herold, D. M. (1996). Rumors of the death of dispositional research are vastly exaggerated. Academy of Management Review, 21, 203-224.
  53. John, O. P. & Srivastatva, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Perspectives. In: L. A. Pervin and O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and Research. Guilford Press, New York, 132- 138.
  54. Judge, T., Brent, A., Scott, A. & Ilies, R. (2006). Hostility, job attitudes, and workplace deviance: Test of a multilevel model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (1), 126-138.
  55. Judge, T. A. & Ilies, R. (2002). Relationship of personality to performance motivation: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87,797–807.
  56. Kantur, D. (2010). Emotional motives and attitudinal reflections of workplace deviant behavior. The Business Review, 14, 70-77.
  57. Kaplan, H. B. (1975). Self-attituds and behavior deviant. Pacific palicade, CA: Goodyear.
  58. Krejcie R, & Morgan, D. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-10.
  59. Lazarus, R. S. (1995). Psychological stress in the workplace. In: R. Crandall and P. L. Perrewe’ (Eds.), Occupational stress. Washington, DC; Taylor and Francis, 3–14.
  60. Lee, K. & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The Role of Affect and Cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (1), 131-142.
  61. Liao, H., Joshi, A. & Chuang, A. (2004). Sticking out like a sore thumb: Employee Dissimilarity and Deviance at Work. Personnel Psychology, 54, 969–1000.
  62. Lovas, L. & Wolt, R. (2002). Sensitivity to injustice in the context of some personality traits. Studia Psychologica, 44, 2, 125-131.
  63. Mackenzie, S., Podsakoff, P. and Aheame, M. (1998). Some possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance. Journal of Marketing, 62, 87-98.
  64. Mangione, T. W. & Quinn, R. P. (1975). Job satisfaction, counterproductive behavior, and drug use at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 114–116.
  65. Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R. & Stewart, G. L. (1998). Five-factor model of personality and performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Human Performance, 11, 145–165.
  66. Mount, M. K. & Barrick, M. R. (1995). The Big five personality dimensions: Implications for Theory and Practice in Human Resource Management. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 13,153–200.
  67. Neuman, G. A., Wagner S. H. & Christiansen NO. (1999). The relationship between work-team personality composition and the job performance of teams. Group and Organization Management, 24, 28-45.
  68. O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Griffin, R. W. & Glew, D. J. (1996). Organization motivated aggression: A Research Framework. Academy of Management Journal, 21, 225–253.
  69. O’Neill, T. A., Lewis, R. J. & Carswell, J. J. (2011). Employee personality, justice perceptions, and the prediction of workplace deviance. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 595–600.
  70. Ones, D. S. (1993). The construct validity of integrity tests. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
  71. Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C. & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Comprehensive meta-analysis of integrity test validities: Findings and Implications for Personnel Selection and Theories of Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 679–703.
  72. Peters, L. H. & O’connor, E. J. (1980). Situational constraint and wor outcomes: The influences of a frequently overlooked construct. Academy of Management Review, 5, 391-397.
  73. Peterson, D. K. (2002). Deviant workplace behaviour and the organization's ethical climate. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 47-61.
  74. Rhoades, L. & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A Review of The Literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698–714.
  75. Robinson, S. L. & Bennett, R. J. (1997). Workplace Deviance: Its Definition, its Manifestations, and its Causes. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 6, 3-27.
  76. Robinson, S. L. & Greenberg, J. (1998). Employees behaving badly: Imensions, determinants, and dilemmas in the study of workplace deviance. In: Cooper, C.L. and Rousseau, D.M. (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior. Wiley, New York, NY, 1-30.
  77. Rotundo, M. & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A Olicy-Capturing Approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 66–80.
  78. Sackett, P. R. & DeVore, C. J. (2001). Counterproductive behaviors at work. In: N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, and C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology. London: Sage, 145–164.
  79. Salgado, J. F. (2002). The Big Five personality dimensions and counterproductive behaviors. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10 (1/2), 117-125.
  80. Schmidt, F. L. and Hunter, J. E. (1992). Causal modeling of processes determining job performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 89–92.
  81. Skarlicki, D. P. & Folger, R. J. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The Roles of Distributive, procedural and Interactional Justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 (3), 434-443.
  82. Skarlicki, D.P., Folger, R. & Tesluk, P. (1999). Personality as a moderator of the relationship between fairness and retaliation. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 100-108.
  83. Spector, P. E. (1997). The role of frustration in antisocial behavior at work. In: R. A. Giacalone and J. Greenberg (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1–17.
  84. Spector, p. E. (1978). Organization frustration: A model and review of the literature. Personnel Pshcychology, 31, 815-829.
  85. Spector, P. E., Dwyer, D. J. & Jex, S. M. (1988). The relation of job stressors to affective, health and performance outcomes: A Comparison of Multiple Data Sources. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 46-53.
  86. Snyder, M. & Gangestad, S. (1982). Choosing social situations: Two Vestigations of Self Monitoring Processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 1, 123-135.
  87. Vardi, Y. & Weiner, Y. (1996). Misbehavior in organizations: A Motivational Framework, Organizational Science, 7, 151-65.
  88. Weiss, H. M., Suckow, K. & Cropanzano, R. (1999). Effects of justice conditions on discrete emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84 (5), 786-794.
  89. Yu, C. 2011. The display of frustration in arguments: A multimodal analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 2964-2981.
  90. Žitny’, P. & Halama, P. (2011). Self-esteem, locus of control and personality traits as predictors of sensitivity to injustice. Studia Psychologica, 53(1), 27-40.
  91. Zoghbi-Manrique de Lara, P. & Verano-Tacoronte, D. (2007). Investigating the effects of procedural justice on workplace deviance: Do employees’ perceptions of conflicting guidance call the tune?. International Journal of Manpower, 28, 715-729.