Antecedents and Outcomes of Employees' intrinsic Motivation: a Meta-analytic Approach

Document Type : Research Article (with quantitative approaches)


Assistant professor of management group, payame noor university, Tehran, Iran



Purpose:  Organizations, irrespective of their size or industry type, strive to forge strong and positive relationships with their employees. An essential aspect of effective communication is understanding the internal motivations of employees. This study aimed to meta-analyze the precursors and consequences of employees' intrinsic motivation.
Design/Methodology/Approach:  Employing a meta-analytical approach, this study scrutinized relevant literature from a span of 38 years (1985-2023). Utilizing specific search criteria in various databases, 317 studies were identified. Of these, 30 studies were selected and subjected to analysis via the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA2) software.
Research findings:  The analysis revealed that relatedness precursors were paramount, leading to positive welfare and behavioral consequences. Among the 13 identified precursors, procedural justice exhibited an effect size below 0.3, categorized as weak (8%), whereas variables such as Islamic work ethics, self-efficacy, autonomy, organizational citizenship behavior, ethical leadership, job satisfaction, job involvement, servant leadership, and psychological empowerment demonstrated moderate effect sizes ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 (69%). Transformational leadership, spiritual leadership, and internal rewards surpassed an effect size of 0.5, classified as strong (23%). Regarding the 13 outcomes, job satisfaction was deemed weak (8%). In contrast, creativity, productivity, performance, risk-taking, organizational identification, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and burnout were moderate (61%), and extrinsic-environmental behaviors, knowledge sharing, job involvement, and retention were strong (31%).
Limitations & consequences:  This research primarily focuses on intrinsic motivation due to the scant attention this area has received in existing literature, thereby addressing a significant gap in this field.
Practical Consequences:  The findings of this study offer valuable insights for managers in making informed decisions related to human resource practices.
Innovation or value of the article:  This study makes a significant contribution by identifying and categorizing the precursors and consequences of intrinsic motivation, presenting a comprehensive model in the realm of intrinsic motivation research.

Paper Type: Research Paper


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