Influencing and Affectability of Millennial Employees' Work Preferences in Governmental Organizations Using Dematel Approach

Document Type : Research Article (with mixed approaches)


1 Faculty member of Semnan University - Public Administration, Organizational Behavior Management

2 Ph.D Candidate, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University

3 Phd candidate in Human Resources Management, Department of Public Administration. Faculty of Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University


Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify and prioritize the impact and affectability of the work preferences of millennial employees in governmental organizations in West Azerbaijan province. This research is applied in terms of purpose.
Design/Methodology/Approach: This research in terms of typology of research is among the studies mixed with qualitative and quantitative approach in the deductive-inductive paradigm. In the qualitative part, the qualitative content analysis method and in the quantitative part, the Dematel method has been used to examine the factors. The statistical population of this study in the qualitative part was management professors that according to the purpose of the study, sampling was done purposefully using the snowball technique and 17 people were choosed. The statistical population of this study in quantitative part was a small number of middle and senior managers of governmental organizations in West Azerbaijan province who participated by using the probabilistic sampling method available to 34 managers. In the qualitative part, the data obtained from the interviews led to the extraction of 14 factors of work preferences related to millennial employees.
Research Findings: According to Dematel analysis, concluding unconventional employment contracts, diversity of work and compensation of merit-based services are the most effective and job security, promotion and being in a career-oriented career path are the most influential among preferences, and factors of job and employee suitability, unconventional contracts and strategic interactions are the most important work preferences of millennial employees.
Limitations & Consequences: Impossibility of generalizability of research results to all communities, use of interview tools and questionnaires to assess the level of honesty of participants in answering questions are among the limitations of current research.
Practical Consequences: Millennial employees have special preferences and expectations Which differs from other generations that will continue to operate in the organization if realized, so identifying and evaluating the impact and affectability of millennial employees' work expectations lead to attracting and maintaining worthy employees of the millennial generation in organizations.
Innovation or value of the Article: The results of research in the field of work preferences of millennial employees have innovations and will help managers of governmental organizations to understand the importance of employees' work preferences.

Paper Type: Research Article


  1. Ahmad Razimi, M. S., Romle, A. R., & Ramli, Z. (2017). The challenge of generation gap within organization. World Journal of Management and Behavioral Studies5(1), 1-4.
  2. Akyuz, E., & Celik, E. (2015). A fuzzy DEMATEL method to evaluate critical operational hazards during gas freeing process in crude oil tankers. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 38, 243-253.
  3. Amiri, M., Salehi Sadaghiyani, J., Payani, N., & Shafieezadeh, M. (2011). Developing a DEMATEL method to prioritize distribution centers in supply chain. Management Science Letters, 1(3), 279-288.
  4. Beutell, N. J., & Wittig‐Berman, U. (2008). Work‐family conflict and work‐family synergy for Generation X, baby boomers, and matures. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
  5. Blomqvist, K., & Levy, J. (2006). Collaboration capability–a focal concept in knowledge creation and collaborative innovation in networks. International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy, 2(1), 31-48.
  6. Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97–113
  7. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson College Division.
  8. Chopra, A., & Bhilare, P. (2020). Future of work: An empirical study to understand expectations of the millennials from organizations. Business Perspectives and Research, 8(2), 272-288.
  9. Chou, S. Y. (2012). Millennials in the workplace: A conceptual analysis of millennials’ leadership and followership styles. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 2(2), 71.
  10. Creswell, J., W. and V. L Plano Clark, (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, London: Sage Publication Inc.
  11. Deal, J. J., & Levenson, A. (2016). Millennials in the workplace. Oxford Bibliographies Online Datasets
  12. Fry, R. (2018). Millennials projected to overtake Baby Boomers as America’s largest generation. PewResearch Center. 2018.
  13. Galdames, S. (2019). Trabajo duro, Una sed POR aprender Y UN poco de suerte: La trayectoria laboral de los directores de la generación milenio en las escuelas públicas de Chile. Perspectiva Educacional, 58(1).
  14. Galdames, S., & Guihen, L. (2020). Millennials and leadership: A systematic literature review. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 1-17., A., & Epstein, M. (2010). Millennials and the world of work: An organization and management perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 211-223. 16.Hira, F. A., Singh, H., Alam, M. M., & Nahid, A. I. (2021). A conceptual framework for organizational attractiveness among Malaysian millennial Jobseekers aimed at the aftermath of COVID-19. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 10(1).
  15. Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2009). Millennials rising: The next great generation. Vintage.
  16. Ismail, M., & Lu, H. S. (2014). Cultural values and career goals of the millennial generation: An integrated conceptual framework. Journal of International Management Studies, 9(1), 38-49.
  17. Jafarinia, S., Kheirandish, M., hassanpoor, A., Bakhshandeh, S. (2019). Identifying Work Expectations of Millennial Generation in Workplace by Using Meta-Synthesis. Quarterly Journal of Public Organizations Management, 7(4), 11-24. doi: 10.30473/ipom.2019.45143.3534 (in persian)
  18. Keith, A. C., Warshawsky, N., & Talbert, S. (2021). Factors that influence millennial generation nurses' intention to stay. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, Publish Ahead of Print.
  19. Kodagoda, T., & Deheragoda, N. (2021). War for talent: Career expectations of millennial employees in Sri Lanka. Millennial Asia, 097639962199054.
  20. Koppel, J., Deline, M., & Virkstis, K. (2017). A two-pronged approach to retaining millennial nurses. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(12), 597-598.
  21. LATİF, H. (2020). Early millennial managers versus millennial employees. International Journal of Disciplines In Economics and Administrative Sciences Studies (IDEAstudies), 6(20), 489-497.
  22. Lin, K., & Lin, C. (2008). Cognition map of experiential marketing strategy for hot spring hotels in Taiwan using the DEMATEL method. 2008 Fourth International Conference on Natural Computation.
  23. Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L., & Ng, E. S. (2015). How have careers changed? An investigation of changing career patterns across four generations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1), 8-21.
  24. Mahmoud, A. B., Fuxman, L., Mohr, I., Reisel, W. D., & Grigoriou, N. (2020). “We aren't your reincarnation!” workplace motivation across X, Y and Z generations. International Journal of Manpower, 42(1), 193-209.
  25. Mentes, A., Akyildiz, H., Yetkin, M., & Turkoglu, N. (2015). A FSA based fuzzy DEMATEL approach for risk assessment of cargo ships at coasts and open seas of Turkey. Safety Science, 79, 1-10.
  26. Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J., & Banister, C. (2010). Generational differences in work ethic: An examination of measurement equivalence across three cohorts. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 315-324.
  27. Neuborne, E. & Kerwin, K. (1999). Generation y. Business Week, 46-50
  28. Ordoñez de Pablos, P., & Tennyson, R. (2016). Handbook of research on human resources strategies for the new millennial workforce. IGI Global. 31.Phillips, K. E. (2018). Millennials in the workplace. Managing Millennials, 1-3.
  29. Pyöriä, P., Ojala, S., Saari, T., & Järvinen, K. (2017). The millennial generation. SAGE Open, 7(1), 215824401769715.
  30. Rezaian, A., Kazem sedai, M., Gharechi, M., Hajikarimi, A., (2018).Identifying indicators of manpower recruitment, retention and retention Talented in the banking industry. Journal of Public Administration Perspective, 9(3), 15-38. (in Persian).
  31. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students (5th ed.). London: Prentice Hall.
  32. Sarshar, E., & Samiei, R. (2019). Identifing theComponents of Human Resource Improvement with an Emphasis onMeritocracy in the Iranian Government. Journal of Public Administration Perspective, 10(4), 176-191. (in Persian).
  33. Singh, D. J., & Davidson, J. (2017). How to retain your millennial employees - The business world factors which motivate them. Mendon Cottage Books.
  34. Tapscott, D. (2008). Grown up digital: How the net generation is changing your world. McGraw Hill Professional.
  35. Thole, E. (2020). Millennial employees in multinational corporations. Opportunities and challenges of Generation Y in the workforce. 39.Thompson, C. A. (2017). Leading a multigenerational workforce in the public sector. UMI: 3257958.
  36. Tsai, M. (2018). Attracting and retaining millennial workers in the modern business era. IGI Global.
  37. Tsai, W., & Chou, W. (2009). Selecting management systems for sustainable development in SMEs: A novel hybrid model based on DEMATEL, ANP, and ZOGP. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(2), 1444-1458.
  38. Tzeng, G., & Huang, J. (2011). Multiple attribute decision making: Methods and applications. CRC Press.
  39. Wiradendi Wolor, C. (2020). The importance of work-life balance on employee performance millennial generation in Indonesia. Journal of Critical Reviews
  40. Yadav, , & Chaudhari, S. (2018). Work Values: Generation Y Expectations and HRM Implications (Study of an Indian Public Sector Non-Life Insurer). Bimaquest, 18(1). Retrieved from
  41. Young, A. M., & Hinesly, M. D. (2012). Identifying millennials' key influencers from early childhood: Insights into current consumer preferences. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(2), 146-155.
  42. Yuniasanti, R., Binti Abas, N. A., & Hamzah, H. (2019). Employee turnover intention among millennials: The role of psychological well-being and experienced workplace incivility. HUMANITAS: Indonesian Psychological Journal, 16(2), 74.