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آسیب‌شناسی و مدل سازی تأثیر مؤلفه های فرهنگی محیط نهادی بر عملکرد ابرپروژه های زیرساختی ایران
محمدرضا حاجی علیخانی, مجتبی عزیزی, محمدحسین صبحیه, مهدی مرتضوی

چکیده
ابرپروژه­ها اهمیت زیادی در رشد اقتصادی کشورها دارند، ولی با کاستی­های متعددی مانند تاخیر، افزایش هزینه، شکست مالی، تاثیر منفی بر محیط زیست و جامعه اطراف روبرو هستند. یکی از دلایل بنیادی عملکرد ضعیف ابرپروژه‌ها، تاثیر منفی عوامل فرهنگی محیط نهادی ابرپروژه‌ها است. در این مقاله تاثیر مؤلفه­های مختلف فرهنگی بر عملکرد تعدادی از ابرپروژه‌های کشور در زمینه نفت، گاز، پتروشیمی، سدسازی و تونل‌های شهری بررسی گردیده، که عمدتاً با بودجه دولتی، توسط کارفرمایان دولتی و توسط پیمانکاران دولتی (یا بخش عمومی) اجرا شده‌ و تا حدودی یک سازمان موقت دولتی محسوب می‌شوند. در این پژوهش با روش نظریه داده‌بنیاد و از طریق مصاحبه با 19 نفر از مدیران و کارشناسان ارشد، مؤلفه­ها شناسایی شده و مدلی مفهومی برای نمایش این تاثیرات پیشنهاد گردید. یافته­ها نشان می‌دهد که تفاوت فرهنگ عوامل اجرایی و مدیریتی این پروژه­ها، مسایل فرهنگی کارکنان و تفاوت‌های فرهنگی ملیت‌ها و اقوام مختلف ایرانی مانند: تفاوت ساعت و تقویم کشورها، زندگی مجردی کارکنان پروژه و تبعات شخصی و آسیب اجتماعی آن، تعارض کار و زندگی خانوادگی کارکنان، تفاوت فرهنگ کارکنان، تعصبات قومی و مذهبی، فرهنگ جامعه محلی، فرهنگ نیروی کار محلی و مشکلات ارتباطی (تفاوت زبان و لهجه) بر عملکرد ابرپروژه تاثیر منفی دارند و باید در برنامه‌ریزی این پروژه‌ها مدنظر قرار گیرد.
واژگان کلیدی
فرهنگ - عملکرد - نهاد - ابرپروژه

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